Philodendron - tropical handsome on the windowsill
Philodendron is an evergreen plant native to hot tropical countries. Despite the climate of the flower’s homeland, many varieties are adapted for cultivation at home. The genus of philodendrons is diverse, it includes vines, shrubs, epiphytes, growing on the trunks of other plants.
The flower is characterized by large broad leaves with relatively thin, long trunks. The shape of the leaf depends on the variety of philodendron, on the age of the plant (with aging, it may vary slightly).
Over time, small scale flakes may appear on the stems, protecting them from damage.
Is philodendron suitable for home?
Most plant growers have at least once come across the opinion that a flower should not be grown by single women, as it can scare men away. Fortunately, this superstition has no scientific evidence. Philodendron is not a danger to personal life, but the plant is still able to harm the health.
It's all about the poisonous juice of the flower: if it comes into contact with the skin, it can cause an allergic reaction. Therefore, it is not recommended to transplant, care for the plant without protective gloves.
Important! Refuse to grow a flower if the house has small children, animals.
Types and varieties of philodendron with photo
The plant has many varieties intended for cultivation at home. The most common is the heart-shaped philodendron.
The short stems of this philodendron make the plant compact. The leaves are large, glossy, of an original form with five-lobed edges. The subspecies is characterized by slow growth, so often growers acquire adult specimens.
The variety belongs to the subspecies of vines. The plant has the appearance of a long vine, the stem of which is covered with small scales.
The leaves are dark green, shiny, divided into 2 parts by a pronounced groove. As the vine grows, it forms into a lignified massive trunk.
The variety is distinguished by glossy spear-shaped leaves. Leafy veins of a yellowish tint distinguish warty philodendron from monochromatic counterparts. Young leaves have a reddish tint, rolled up by a tube.
The flower has beautiful separated leaves up to 45 cm long. Liana is distinguished by a powerful stem, rarely giving lateral processes, which greatly complicates reproduction.
Philodendron golden black
The plant is rarely cultivated at home due to its impressive size. The leaves of adult specimens reach 60–80 cm, which with a length of about 2 m makes the philodendron gigantic.
The stems are powerful, fragile, covered with a large number of aerial roots. The foliage has a dark green color with a bronze tint, veins are yellowish-golden.
Foliage of a saturated green shade, covered with bright spots of different sizes. The shape is elongated, peaked. When grown in the form of a liana, the leaf reaches a value of 14 cm, keeping the trunk in a horizontal position makes it possible to grow foliage up to 25 cm in length.
A plant with thin, fragile shoots, reaching up to 2 m in length. With age, the trunk lignifies and becomes strong. The foliage is elongated, about 25 cm wide, up to 30 cm long. Their inner part has a reddish tint.
A plant with original leaves, divided into several segments, belongs to shrub philodendrons. With age, the leaves increase, become stiff. At home, the flower reaches a height of 1.5 m.
The flower got its name due to the absence of rigid stems. In nature, the creeping liana clings to the trunk of a nearby tree; when cultivated in a pot, it needs support.
Philodendron of the ivy variety, whose feature is variegation. The plant is distinguished by long thin shoots with small leaves, decorated with stripes of white, reddish hues.
The plant is considered a subspecies of the blushing philodendron, their similarity in the burgundy stems and the back of the leaf. Philodendron Medusa is distinguished by photophilousness, rapid growth.
The peculiarity of this variety of flower is unique openwork leaves. Outwardly, the variety resembles a monstera, but the leaf segments are completely divided. With age, the stems form strong shrub trunks, the height of which can reach 3 m.
A variety of flower is very similar to climbing philodendron. It differs from it in light reddish veins of large heart-shaped leaves.
The leaves of the plant are heart-shaped, outwardly resemble a guitar, due to which the flower found its name. With age, the size of the sheets increases, the shape changes slightly.
Philodendron is a bipartite
A subspecies of the Sello variety. The differences are manifested in the size of the leaves, the length of the shoots.
Strelolistny or spear-shaped
Evergreen liana has oblong leaves, pointed at the ends. The plant is weaving, therefore, requires additional support for pot growing.
Spectacular flower with large oblong leaves. A distinctive feature - light spots of a small size, resembling drops.
The variety belongs to the subspecies of lianas with large leaves reaching a length of 50 cm. The most popular Brazilian philodendron is a subspecies of the ivy.
The variety has beautiful, shiny, separated leaves of a saturated green hue. Liana is flexible, mobile, fragile, requires additional support.
Varieties such as brilliant philodendron with soft velvety leaves are popular. Variety Red emerald attracts reddish streaks on the crown. Radiant philodendron has distinctly separated leaves that resemble the diverging rays of the sun.
A variety of Goldie Lock attracts plant growers with golden green shiny leaves. Burle Marx - variegate philodendron, has colorful, smooth, drop-shaped leaves.
The birthplace of the flower is tropical forests, it is used to the hot climate. It is important to create suitable conditions at home in order to grow a healthy large plant.
Heat-loving culture prefers room contents with air temperature + 23 ... 26 ° С. In the warm season, much attention should be paid to humidity in the room.
It is important to properly prepare the plant for wintering. The period from October to March, you need to lower the temperature to +15 ° C.
Philodendron prefers well-lit places, however, direct sunlight should be avoided so that the plant does not receive burns. It is important to provide your pet with a long daylight.
Advice! In winter, in the absence of natural light, it is necessary to illuminate the philodendron using phytolamps, fluorescent lamps.
In spring, summer, tropical culture prefers well-moistened soil. It is important to water the plant as the surface of the earthen coma dries. It is equally important to avoid waterlogging, otherwise there is a risk of root decay.
In winter, watering should be reduced to 1 time in 7-10 days. It is recommended to use settled, filtered water at room temperature.
In the homeland of the philodendron, a tropical climate prevails, characterized by high humidity. In winter, it is especially important to monitor the humidity of the air: heaters drain it.
It is recommended to purchase special devices, periodically place wet sponges on the radiators, material for evaporation. Some growers advise spray leaves from a spray bottle.
Young plants are transplanted annually in the spring. Adult plants it is required to transplant less often - 1 time in 3 years. It is important to choose a flowerpot slightly larger than the previous one. Too much capacity will cause the plant to grow the root system, which will slow down the growth of shoots.
Transplantation is carried out by the method of transshipment of an earth coma according to the following algorithm:
- The flower must be carefully removed from the old pot. It is impossible to clean the root system from the old soil, so as not to damage the philodendron.
- At the bottom of the new tank is placed a foam drain, coarse perlite, expanded clay.
- Pour a thin layer of fresh soil on top.
- Place the plant in a pot, cover the voids with earth, lightly tamp, water.
Attention! It is important to carry out all manipulations with gloves in order to avoid an allergic reaction to the poisonous juice of the plant.
Recommended by use complex liquid fertilizers with a frequency of 1 time in 2 weeks in the summer. In winter, you need to abandon additional dressings.
Diseases and Pests
Philodendron is considered resistant to diseases, however, some factors can lead to the activation of harmful microorganisms, the appearance of viruses.
Philodendron affects only two pathogens from existing microorganisms:
- Ervinia carotovoraor spotting. Brown spots with uneven edges appear on the leaves, the plant fades. The disease occurs due to improper irrigation, waterlogging of the soil. The problem can be solved by regulating the humidity regime.
- Pseudomonos cichorii - leaf necrosis. Symptoms are similar to spotting, however, softening of leaf plates and wateriness of leaf tips are also observed. It is possible to save the plant by separating the cuttings with subsequent rooting.
Subject to the recommended temperature and humidity conditions, these ailments are rare.
Mycosis is of the following varieties:
- Fungal spotting characterized by the appearance of yellowish translucent spots on the leaves.
- Late blight - blackening of the sheet plate, dark coating.
- Black rotinfecting the root system.
- White rot differs by mold growths at the rhizome, on the leaves.
Heal a tropical flower by treatment with antifungal drugs. During treatment, it is important to quarantine diseased plants and prophylactically treat its “neighbors”.
Diseases caused by viral pathogens are characterized by the appearance of irregularities on the foliage, growth retardation. Unfortunately, it’s difficult to save a plant affected by a virus. It is recommended to separate the healthy part from the affected bush, to root it is the only way to preserve the plant.
Pests of philodendron, the fight against them
|Name||Main signs||How to fight?|
|Mealybug||The leaves are covered with a soft white coating. Easy to clean with a damp cloth.||Alternative methods: treatment with a solution of laundry soap 72%, leaf treatment with infusion of garlic, alcohol tincture of marigolds.|
|Spider mite||Cobweb on the leaves, plant linkage, yellowing, growth retardation.||Alternative methods: irradiation with an ultraviolet lamp for 2 minutes 1 time in 7 days.|
|Shield||Droplets of sticky transparent liquid on leaf veins.||Alternative methods: spraying with a soap solution with alcohol in a ratio of 1: 1: 4.|
Home philodendron can be propagated in several ways. The most popular are described below.
Propagation by cuttings, leaves
The method is simple, most accessible to beginner growers. The algorithm is as follows:
- From the mother bush, it is necessary to separate a suitable process. It is important that the stalk has 2 or more internodes.
- Treat the cut sites with the Kornevin preparation for better rooting.
- Planting is carried out in small containers filled with a mixture of peat, sand, earth.
The plant that has taken root begins to actively grow young shoots with leaves.
Rooting of air layers
From the mother bush, you need to carefully take layers with aerial roots, fix them above the soil. As they grow back, the roots will grow into the substrate. After the appearance of the root system in the daughter plant, it should be separated from the mother.
Planting a stiff stalk
To form the root system, it is necessary to make incisions on the trunk, wrap it with a film, after placing moss-sphagnum under it. After the roots grow more than 2 cm, the plant is ready for planting in the soil.
The method is complex, suitable for breeding rare varieties, preserving the species characteristics of a particular variety. Sow the seeds you need in a moist nutrient soil close to the surface.
It is important to cover the container with a film to create a microclimate. The first shoots appear 10-15 days after planting. The growth rate depends on the type of philodendron. You can transplant young plants after the appearance of 2–4 true leaves.