Fern Healer - Nephrolepis
Nephrolepis is a fern plant that came to us from the tropical forests of Asia, America and Africa. The ancient fern takes root perfectly in modern offices and apartments, it is easy to care for it. Nephrolepis feels good both in a hanging pot (for example, Duffy or xiphoid nephrolepis), and in an outdoor flowerpot (Vital).
Fern is used as an air purifier; in folk medicine, it is known for its healing properties.
Varieties of fern nephrolepis
Fern leaves grow up to 3 meters. From a short vertical rhizome shoots in the form of leaves and lashes grow, the latter are responsible for reproduction. Nodules are located on the rhizome, their function is the accumulation of nutrients in case of adverse conditions. The color of the fern is light green, segments of lanceolate-type leaves from 5 cm long. Rounded soruses (spore groups) are located at the ends of the leaves under yellowish scales.
There are about 30 species of nephrolepis in the world. In nature, ferns of this genus reach 3.5 m in height. But at home, usually plants with a height of not more than a meter (about 70 cm) are usually chosen. Consider the species from the photo for home breeding.
Terrestrial fern, also called Exaltate, originally from the southeastern part of Asia. A thick lush rosette grows from a vertical rhizome. The leaves reach a length of up to 70 cm, have a bright green color and an arched shape. Branches have approximately 50 separate parts up to 6 cm long.
Attention! The leaves show age of the plant: they turn yellow and fall.
Curly nephrolepis (curly)
Curly fern was raised from elevated nephrolepis. This species is considered undersized. Its advantage is in decorative foliage: it looks like lace.
Nephrolepis Boston (Boston)
This nephrolepis, whose homeland is the United States of America, is known as the first species with high cold resistance. This made it possible to transfer it from special greenhouse conditions to ordinary home ones. This species has long leaves up to eighty centimeters with wavy edges. It is often offered to grow as an ampel plant, that is, in hanging pots.
Appeared as a species for growing at home in 1841. The stems of the fern, or vaya, grow vertically from the red roots, giving the plant an unusual look. On the underground shoots of fern, nodules are formed that look similar to swelling of scales. The main feature of these ferns is in their leaves. A specific form is formed due to the location of the leaves on the stem - they grow in pairs, similar to the heart.
Nephrolepis Green Lady
Do not confuse with the Green moment! Lady is an ampel plant. Vayi have an openwork look. Its name comes from an elegant appearance similar to a green fountain. This effect is created by long stems and leaves twisting at the ends. It is able to grow well even in an apartment, it feels better in partial shade or under artificial lighting.
Arrived to us from the center of America. It has large vayas, in nature they reach 2.5 m. Home specimens are more often found with leaves from one to two meters. Due to its size, it fits in spacious houses or apartments with high ceilings. It has no nodules. The stems of the leaves are curved, the fern can grow in a hanging pot.
Wii light green hue growing to the sides. It belongs to small nephrolepis, its growth is only 50–55 centimeters. The shape of the fern is closer to spherical. A good option for home and office space. Loves humidity, so it is recommended to spray it (especially in hot weather).
Another miniature among home ferns. His vayy are located vertically. Fern growth is not more than 50 centimeters. Emina's leaves are also curly and curled, with wavy and jagged edges. Like the Sonata, this species loves moisture. This is the best option, if in doubt, is it possible to keep nephrolepis at home.
Nephrolepis: growing and caring at home
The fern that came to us from ancient times, considered popular for growing at home and in offices. This is not only a beautiful addition to the interior, nephrolepis can be beneficial. It has an air-purifying function that brings more effect than most indoor plants. Therefore, with proper care, it will delight your eyes with health benefits.
Location and lighting
Fern is suitable for diffused sunlight or artificial lighting. Nephrolepis can survive even in darkened conditions, direct sunlight or being in the sun all day is much more harmful for it. therefore when choosing a windowsill, stop at the east or west windows. If it is possible to place the flowerpot only on the south side, then close the window using blinds or curtains to create a shadow.
In the winter, provide fern artificial lighting. Daylight lamps should be located about half a meter from the flower, under such lamps the plant should be about 8 hours. In autumn and winter, do not forget to ventilate the room, but try to avoid drafts.
In summer, the plant can be taken out to the balcony, if you can provide it with a place in the shade. But make sure that the fern does not get caught in the rain. If you can’t take the plant out into the open air, then provide it with frequent ventilation.
For nephrolepis, the ideal growing temperature would be +20 ° C. If you can keep a fern in this mode all year, then the probability of its disease will be close to zero.
is he doesn't like too high temperatures: above + 24 ... 25 ° C is already a problem for the plant. Nephrolepis needs to be provided with high humidity so that it can survive the hot period. If possible, put it in a cooler place.
These ferns do not like temperature changes in both directions, but they are still able to tolerate up to 15 ° C.
Attention! Staying cold for a long time can cause illness and stress.
Nephrolepis needs high humidity; it comes from tropical forests. It is worth spraying it with soft, settled water from the spray gun for a year, learning the procedure in hot and dry weather. If the fern is in a dry place all the time, then it should be moistened twice a day.
There is another method for increasing humidity: place a container with the plant on wet pebbles or moss. Sometimes the stems are even washed under a shower, but you must carefully close the soil from the ingress of excess moisture. The procedure helps get rid of dust on the leaves. If you have the opportunity, you can put special devices to control air humidity.
Fern soil should always be kept wet. Filtered water is poured into the pan. Watering time begins when the topmost layer of the substrate dries slightly. But excess fluid is harmful. If there is still water in the pan after an hour, then it needs to be drained, otherwise there is a risk of root decay.
Water the fern about 3 times a week when it's hot. In cold weather, 1 time is enough. During active vegetation, it is advised to water every day, draining excess water on time.
Important! Try not to bring the plant to dry soil: this leads to the death of young stems.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
The plant needs top dressing in the fall and spring. In other seasons, this is not recommended: fertilizers at the wrong time can lead to illness and even death. Use mineral and organic additives for top dressing., they can be taken in turn. You can use special fertilizers for decorative and deciduous plants.
Fertilize every two to three weeks, and stop mid-autumn. You can not use concentrated top dressing.
Transplant ferns are advised at least once a year for better development and growth. This can be done in any season, since nephrolepis does not have a rest period. But it’s better to transplant in the spring.
Adult plants (from 3 years) are transplanted only once every two or three years. A change in the flowerpot is necessary if you notice that the fern has grown and does not fit in the same capacity.
The capacity for the plant is chosen wide and deep, usually at least two centimeters larger than the previous pot in diameter and depth. This will help the fern grow. There should be drainage at the bottom of the tank (you can choose pebbles): this way the water will be better off. Without this, the soil may become too wet, and the roots will begin to rot.
For nephrolepis, an acidic substrate is suitable, which includes:
- Sand, peat and deciduous land.
- Another option is peat, coniferous and greenhouse land.
Particles of sphagnum or crushed coal are sometimes added. They provide soil protection against bacteria and a breathable structure. Do not forget that always You can buy a ready-made mixture for fernsso as not to be mistaken.
- Remove the fern with roots in the ground from the pot.
- Put the lump in the middle of the new tank where the drainage is already lying.
- Fill the soil and do not crush it.
- Water the transplanted plant and add fertilizer.
Problems When Growing Nephrolepis
One can encounter difficulties in caring for a fern, such as yellowing the stems and falling leaves on the vayas. If in this case the plant’s crown looks healthy and green, then you just need to remove the dead parts of the plant and clean the soil under nephrolepis. From time to time, old leaves will fall off for the appearance of new shoots.
But poor leaves can lead to foliage problems if the flower suffers from too much moisture or dryness. Or if it has been in direct sunlight for a long time. In these cases check how you follow the rules for growing fern, and cut off the damaged vayi. If you cannot determine what the problem is, then alternately change the individual conditions until you find the cause of drying.
Sometimes the reason is that nephrolepis does not always adapt quickly after a transplant. Then it must be placed in ideal conditions and wait until the adaptation is completed.
Another problem is the slowdown of fern growth. This usually results in a lack of space in the pot and fertilizers. Sometimes the cold is to blame. A transplant is needed if there is not enough space in the tank. In other cases, the main recipe is the correct growing conditions.
Diseases and Pests
Nephrolepis can not be attributed to often sick plants, its resistance is called average. Disease prevention is based on a low nitrogen content in the soil.. Among its diseases, fungal infections (anthracnose) are found. The fungus appears in dark spots on the leaves and in brown streaks at the top of the plates. The treatment consists in pruning the affected leaves and treating with fungicides. After that, do not water or spray the plant for one week.
Ferngray mold can hit. It refers to dangerous diseases, as it applies to all segments of the plant. Therefore, it is so important to notice the rot in time and remove the affected areas, before moving the plant away from others.
Attention! After trimming the fern, do not forget about processing the plant.
The problem of rotten roots can be seen by yellowing and the death of foliage. Here you just need to reduce watering.
The most common pests of this fern include:
- Shields spotted: the pest leaves them on the leaves when it feeds. They are treated with vegetable oil and special means, for example, “Karbofos”.
- Aphid. She changes the shape of the leaf by drinking its juice. Leaves become curly and yellow. Sometimes there are sticky discharge. In extreme cases, the plant is cut to the very root: it is able to give new sprouts. For less critical damage, a water-based garlic solution is sufficient. They also use medicines (Antitlin, Akarin, Fitoverm and others).
- Mealybug. A plaque appears on the plant, which is similar to cotton wool. This plaque is secreted by insects to protect their offspring. It is necessary to remove all the vermilion eggs with cotton. Then it is treated first with water and soap, and rinsed every other day. The treatment is repeated so that the pests accurately disappear. With severe damage, the fern is cut under the root and planted in another pot.
There are several options for the reproduction of nephrolepis. Any method is preferred in spring or summer.
Dividing the bush
This method has good survival. Division can only be done with adult ferns. The plant is taken out of the pot, carefully separated and placed in different containers, covered with a bag. The structure is placed in a warm place, sometimes removing the polyethylene to ventilate. Water and spray - over time, the bushes will take root and begin to grow.
This is a laborious and lengthy process that is rarely chosen for home use. Yes, and decorative varieties are often sterilized, they simply do not have spores. So, first, cut the leaves with soruses and collect brown spores on paper. They need to be dried in a dark place.
Sown in small containers, covered with glass and kept at a temperature of 21 ... 25 ° C. Do not forget to air. Moss appears first, sprouts grow a couple of months after it. Next, it is worth thinning the sprouts and wait another month for seedlings to be planted in different containers. They should always be in a warm and humid place.
The tubers are shared with the fern during transplantation and planted in a pot with prepared soil. This method is easy and does not take much time. It is advised to use for indoor ferns: so new plants take root well at home.
A simple method. The shoots are pressed to the soil in another pot with a hairpin or wire. The substrate must remain moist. When the shoot gives leaflets, transplant it and expect growth.
Nephrolepis is one of the best indoor plants for air purification. It neutralizes such harmful substances in the air as formaldehyde, xylene and others. An antiseptic effect is also noted: it cleans the airspace of some microbes.
The use of fern in folk medicine is popular. A decoction of nephrolepis is used to treat fungus, varicose veins. The juice of the plant helps to cope with diseases of the oral cavity.