How to grow indoor chrysanthemum in a pot
Chrysanthemums are distinguished by their long lush flowering. Specially bred varieties can be grown not only in the garden, but also on the windowsill of any apartment. Many colors allow you to create original compositions or choose a plant for the interior.
Description of Home Chrysanthemum
If you plant a flower from a garden in a pot, it will soon stretch out and turn into an unattractive bush. therefore for the windowsill, the so-called home chrysanthemum is chosen: these varieties are adapted to room conditions.
The overall appearance of chrysanthemums in a pot is compact size. The height of individual shoots depends on the variety and reaches an average of 20-30 cm. The leaves are painted in light green color, the edges have notches or notches. On the bottom surface of the leaf plates there are villi, due to which it appears gray.
On the tops of the shoots inflorescences are formed in the form of a basket. Chrysanthemum belongs to the family Compositae, so each bud consists of hundreds of small petals and a pronounced core. Their size depends on the species and is divided into small-, medium- or large-flowered.
Color formation occurs at the same time as in garden species - by August or September. But the flowering period due to room conditions is longer - until December.
The roots form a branched network, growing mainly parallel to the surface of the earth.
Potted Chrysanthemum Varieties
Pot chrysanthemum can be only 4 species. Of these, breeders derive many varieties of various colors.
Indian Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum)
The most popular species intended for indoor cultivation (pictured). The bush reaches a height of 20 to 60 cm, large flowers (up to 15 cm in diameter). When kept sensitive to lack of lighting and moisture. In the summer, it responds favorably to the content in the fresh air, but the slightest frost will immediately lead to the death of the plant.
Among the varieties of Indian chrysanthemums, the following are popular:
- Anastasia The petals of the flower are very narrow and elongated, and the color is found both in traditional white, lilac or pink, and in the original light green or acid yellow.
- Artist. Got this name, probably for its dual color: the longitudinal stripes of white and pink alternate on each petal. The core of the yellow color contrasts brightly with the pastel gamut of the bud.
- Vimini It is distinguished from the variety of chrysanthemums by the simple shape of a flower in which the petals are arranged in a single row around the core. The color resembles a sunflower: yellow or orange periphery around the brown center.
Chinese or Mulberry Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium)
Series of varieties of this species differ not only in the shape and color of the flowers, but also in the size of the bush itself. The Cascade series, which is gaining popularity, forms hanging shoots in the form of ampelous plants, which makes it possible to grow spectacular chrysanthemums in a cache-pot or on a balcony.
A series of Chinese Charm chrysanthemums grows to half a meter and is grouped by the coloring of semi-double flowers.
Korean (Chrysanthemum koreanum)
It differs from other species in low shoots (not more than 40 cm) and small flowers. Korean chrysanthemum should be chosen for growing on balconies in cold regions, since small frosts at the end of summer will not destroy the plant.
Variety Orange has rich orange petals and a yellow center.
Korean red chrysanthemum is called Lipstick, and white - Umka. Varieties Navara, Lilac, Korean are popular.
Shrub or Daisy (Chrysanthemum frutescens)
The most closely related species is garden chrysanthemums. The height of the bush can reach a meter, and the flowers are formed by one row of petals like daisies or daisies.
Home Care for Chrysanthemums
When buying chrysanthemum in a pot, home care according to the rules will ensure long flowering and beauty of the plant.
For the first time, a flower enters the house from the store from autumn to early winter, that is, at the peak of flowering. During transportation, sharp changes in temperature should not be allowed, especially with negative indicators of a thermometer on the street. This can lead to frostbite of delicate flowers and leaves up to the complete death of the plant.
The first 1-2 weeks for adaptation, a cool temperature is provided within 15 ... 16 ° C. Then, the remaining flowering time of chrysanthemum indoor is contained at 19 ... 21 ° C. A cooler temperature is comfortable for her, and if the room is above 25 ° C, the plant will quickly drop flowers, diseases will begin to appear.
In the greenhouse of flower shops, chrysanthemums are kept flowering all the time at 15 ... 17 ° C, which ensures the opening of a large number of buds and preservation of decorative attractiveness for more than a month.
Optimal for chrysanthemum lighting will be on the east or west windowsill. In the north side of the world it will not be enough, and in the south the sun's rays will cause burns and wilting of leaves.In summer, if possible, take the pot out onto the balcony or plant the chrysanthemum in the open ground.
Watering and feeding
The watering regime is recommended moderate, that is, the soil of the chrysanthemum needs slightly moist.
Important! Especially in the flowering phase, the soil cannot completely dry out. This will immediately manifest as wilted leaves and significantly accelerate flowering.
Excess water from the sump is drained immediately to prevent root decay.
Fertilizers for chrysanthemum are needed to the same extent as water. Without fertilizer, the leaves become pale, the stems are thinned and extended, and the flowers do not form. Favorably on the growth of green mass affects mineral complexes with a predominance of nitrogen. It is recommended to feed them from the beginning of spring to the summer twice a month.
Important! In order not to burn the roots, fertilizers are applied to moist soil. To do this, in the evening, the plant is watered with plain water, and in the morning (after about 12 hours) - with top dressing.
Before flowering, complex mineral fertilizers with phosphorus, iron and potassium are needed with the same frequency. Weekly, the plant is watered with mullein solution (1:10) or fertilizers similar in composition.Top dressing completely stops during the dormant period.
Trimming and shaping a bush
Pinching or pruning the main trunk are standard methods for forming a chrysanthemum bush. After the beginning of spring growth, the main trunk must be cut with a sharp knife at a height of 10-15 cm. This will allow the growth of lateral shoots to begin to grow, each of which will gain color in the summer.
In a month, it will be possible to cut off the secondary shoots, modeling a lush bush.
The next pruning is carried out after flowering. Dry branches are completely cut off, thick internal shoots are thinned out. Healthy and strong branches are shortened to 7–10 cm.
The first transplant after purchase is required in nutrient soil, as store substrate not suitable for long-lasting flower maintenance. The preferred way to transplant chrysanthemum from pot to pot is through transshipment:
- A new pot is prepared 2-3 cm larger than the previous one in width and height.
- The bottom with drainage holes must be covered with a layer of pebbles or expanded clay 2 cm.
- On top you need to pour a little new substrate, bought specifically for chrysanthemums or prepared independently (leafy soil, humus and peat).
- The pot with chrysanthemum is watered, turned over (the flower must be held by the main stem), the earthen clump is shaken out.
- The roots should be carefully examined for the presence of diseases, brushing off the excess substrate around them.
- Damage is cut and sprinkled with coal powder.
- The treated plant is placed in the center of a new flowerpot and is covered with fertile soil from the sides and from above.
- The transplanted chrysanthemum is watered and put away in a cool dark place for a week.
After transplantation, top dressing begins in a month. The young bush needs soil renewal and an increase in the pot annually in early spring. After reaching 5 years of age, a transplant is necessary 1 time in 3 years.
Features after flowering
After the chrysanthemum has faded, what to do with the plant to preserve it for the next year? It is necessary to bring the conditions of detention closer to the natural ones by wintering:
- Branches with dried flowers are cut at a distance of 5-10 cm from the roots. On the remaining shoots, 2-3 sinuses from the leaves should be preserved, from which new branches will begin to grow in the spring.
- Watering is reduced to 1 time per week.
- All dressings cease.
- The flower pot is transferred to a cool place without light with a temperature of about 6 ° C.
Important! Wintering is required for the full growth of chrysanthemum.
If there is no basement or balcony, the pot is wrapped in a bag and put away in the refrigerator. In extreme cases, you need to trim the shoots higher and leave the chrysanthemum on the window. But in such a situation, the risk of death of the flower is high, since without a cooling period the chrysanthemum will not gain strength for the next vegetation cycle.
Propagation of chrysanthemums at home
Having created optimal conditions, the florist receives a lush bush suitable for reproduction. The procedure is performed in one of 3 possible ways.
Growing from seeds is intended for growing new varieties of chrysanthemums. Planting material purchased at the store is planted in a mixture of universal soil, peat and sand.
Advice! So that the planted seeds germinate, the soil is pre-disinfected in the oven or spilled with a hot solution of violet potassium permanganate.
Seeds are placed on top of the soil, 0.5 cm deep and moistened from the spray gun. The container on top must be covered with a film or glass, opening a little daily for ventilation.
Shoots appear in a couple of weeks. The pot is placed in a bright place with a daylight duration of at least 10 hours. When 4 leaves appear on the sprouts, they are planted in separate containers with soil, as for adult chrysanthemums.
It is convenient to propagate with cuttings after autumn pruning. The branches are cut at 10 cm and are freed from the leaves in the lower half. Cuttings are placed in a glass with water until the formation of roots of about 5 cm, after which they can be planted in the ground.
Division of the bush is carried out at the next spring transplant. In this way, only a healthy plant propagates, since the procedure causes severe stress in chrysanthemums:
- The flower must be removed from the pot and rinsed off the roots of the old earth under the tap.
- With a clean pruner or knife, the bush is cut so that each part has several shoots and healthy roots.
- The slice is sprinkled with charcoal powder, the bush is planted in separate pots.
After the procedure, it is better to clean the chrysanthemum in a dark and cool place for a week.
The main problems when growing
If a grower knows exactly how to care for a chrysanthemum, then problems are unlikely. Therefore, the cause of any trouble should be sought in the content mode.
Gray rot manifests itself as a coating that corrodes stems and leaves. It develops due to excess moisture, therefore it is necessary to trim the irrigation regime after trimming all infected areas and treating with fungicide.
White coating is caused by powdery mildew. Treatment is carried out according to the same scheme.
Leaf spotting or septoria
The disease manifests itself as dark spots with a light rounded border. With late detection, the entire leaf plate is affected. For treatment, infected leaves break off, the entire bush is treated with copper sulfate.
The appearance of flower insects is possible after keeping the plant on the balcony or in the garden. Parasites develop from non-disinfected soil or fly from other plants.
Small aphids are visible with the naked eye in the axils of the leaves. Insects need to be removed with a cotton pad dipped in a solution from laundry soap. Then the plant is treated with an insecticide.
A spider mite appears at the slightest drop in humidity. It appears flour-like plaque on the lower surface of the leaves and thin threads of cobwebs. The leaves are washed with soapy water and then treated with an antiparasitic agent.
The main thing is to carry out several treatments in 5-7 days to destroy the next generation of pests.
Video about planting and caring for a room chrysanthemum: