The main secrets of growing indoor hibiscus
Hibiscus, or Chinese rose, belongs to the family Malvaceae. There are more than 200 species of this plant. The birthplace of hibiscus is the north of Indochina and southern China. From there, the flower migrated to the tropics and subtropics.
For decades, it has been grown in greenhouses and flower pots. But in order to grow hibiscus, home care is carried out according to all the rules.
Indoor Hibiscus Care
If you know how to care for a Chinese rose, carefully fulfill all the requirements and take care of the plant, it will respond with beautiful flowering.
Location and lighting
For full flowering of hibiscus, you need to choose the right place for a flower pot. Young roses are best placed on the west or east side.
In no case can you put a Chinese rose in the northern part - it will go long and will not bloom. In the south, the plant will also be uncomfortable: excess sunlight can burn hibiscus.
The Chinese guest cannot stand the heat, and this must be taken into account first. Comfortable are 18 ... 20 ° C degrees in warm time, and in winter - at least 14 and no more than 16 ° C.
Hibiscus is very hygrophilous. Its leaves need to be sprayed, avoiding water getting on the flower petals. Dried air is extremely undesirable, so it is appropriate to use ionizers.
A hibiscus pot is best placed on a hydrogel backing - it is much easier to solve the problem of drying up the earth.
The Chinese rose loves moisture, so in summer and late spring it is watered especially generously to completely wet the earthen lump. After half an hour, the accumulated water is drained from the stand. But you can’t fill in hibiscus: you can breed a fungal environment, and the plant will begin to rot.
Since mid-September, when it’s already cool, the irrigation regime is gradually minimized. As soon as the top of the soil is completely dry, the soil is loosened and only after 3 days the flower is watered. The temperature is also gradually reduced: this is how hibiscus prepares for winter.
The soil is preferred purchased, loose, saturated and neutral in acid-base balance. Peat is not used.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
Fertilizers can be made at home. Suitable sleeping tea leaves, eggshells, banana skins. In floral shops special mineral mixtures are sold, selected in composition in accordance with the requirements of the flower.
From organics as a top dressing of hibiscus is suitable:
- bone meal;
- green manure;
- chicken droppings.
Important! Undiluted manure can damage the roots of the plant.
The infusion on the mullein is done like this: a bucket is filled with a third of manure and completely filled with water. To eliminate excess ammonia, the mixture is aged 4 days. To prepare green manure, a third bucket is filled with grass, filled with water to the brim and aged for 3 days.
Hibiscus is fed at least once a month, alternating mineral fertilizers with organic matter. Fertilizers are poured under the root.
The flower receives nitrogen and potassium from manure, phosphorus from flour, ash. These fertilizers must not be mixed, as they neutralize each other.
If the flower was bought at the market or taken from the side, the soil must be changed to get rid of pests and keep the rest of the plants in the house.
Soil can be bought in a store, or you can make it yourself by mixing 2 parts of clay, 1 part of humus foliage, 1 part of the earth, 0.5 parts of sand, vermiculite and charcoal.
The flower is carefully knocked over into a basin and transferred to a new container.
Important! Young plants are transplanted every year, as they grow quickly. Adults, starting from the third year, rarely transplant - once every 3-5 years.
For a rose to bloom well, pruning is needed. The branches growing inward are pruned, and the tops are nipped. Young shoots are needed, because it is here that flowers are formed. Sometimes a problem arises, how to make hibiscus blossom. Trimming here is the main helper.
Not everyone knows how to prune hibiscus correctly. Old branches are cut to a third of the length. The very tips of the shoots after flowering are removed. Thus, side shoots are formed and will give life to new buds. Crown formation is best done in February - early Marchbut the procedure is allowed year-round.
Breeding Indoor Hibiscus
Indoor hibiscus can reproduce in two ways - cuttings and seeds. Many lovers prefer seed propagation. This method is convenient, effective, and even beginners can do it.
The advantages of this method are obvious: simplicity, good shoots, the exclusion of the possibility of transmission of viruses, flowering in the same year. The downside is that the new flower does not always look like the plant that produced the seeds.
Among the advantages of propagation by cuttings is the simplicity of the procedure, and a new flower will copy all the qualities of the mother plant. The downside is that sometimes it is difficult to “release” the root system and prevent the stalk from decaying.
How to breed hibiscus? Both purchased seeds and those obtained independently are suitable. An adult rose forms seed pods that ripen, dry and open. When the pods are dark brown, they can be opened and the seeds collected.
Before planting, seed germination is artificially accelerated: they are placed in a solution of manganese (per 100 ml of water, 1 g of potassium permanganate). Stand for an hour, pour over with wet sand and send to the refrigerator for 2 weeks.
Important! Chinese rose grows well in acidic soils.
Expanded clay is laid at the bottom of the pot, another 3/4 of the capacity is filled with a nutrient mixture and rammed. Everything is sprayed, mixed and sprayed again. Seeds are lightly sprinkled with earth. The soil is additionally moistened from the spray gun. The pot is exposed to heat with a temperature of at least 28 ° C.
More seeds need more diffused light to germinate.. Under direct rays, the stems stretch and break. In early spring, additional lighting sources are needed.
The container is covered with polyethylene, but it needs to be opened and aired daily. The soil must be sprayed, but not flooded and monitored so that it does not dry out.
After germination and the formation of two leaves, hibiscus is planted in separate pots.
Propagation by cuttings
When propagating by cuttings, woody shoots are used. Young, green twigs are not suitable for this. They rot quickly.
With a sharp knife, the shoot is separated with two or three sheets and internodes. The stem is cut "corner", the lower leaves are removed. The remaining foliage is cut by a third. The stem is placed in the bottom of the root-forming drug, such as "Epin." You can root in a container with water, and in a pot, and using a peat tablet.
Roots will be in 2-3 months. Only after this can the stalk be transplanted into a container with earth.
How to plant hibiscus
Hibiscus practically does not have a phase of persistent dormancy, therefore it is allowed to vaccinate it year-round. It is advisable to wait for the growing moon, because it is then that the juices depart from the roots and feed the stems as much as possible. Botany knows several vaccination methods, but "split" is the most common.
For successful implantation of a vaccination, a good, rooted stem - rootstock - and varietal hibiscus - graft are needed. It is better to pick up a graft with 1-2 pairs of leaflets, and a stockstock - at least 3 months old.
The vaccine is done with clean hands, the garden knife is wiped with alcohol. The stock and scion are selected the same thickness. Everything necessary for vaccination must be collected in advance so that the slices do not dry out.
The cuttings are wedge-shaped from a varietal stem. Then, the top with leaflets is cut off at the rootstock, in the middle of the trunk a vertical cut is made with a depth of not more than 1 cm. The grafting place is tightly wrapped from bottom to top. After vaccination, the plant is covered with polyethylene, a phytolamp is included.
Care after vaccination is a daily inspection and ventilation. In the first days, the leaves of the scion become loose, faded. But after the appearance is restored. If failed, the vaccine is repeated.
The plant is vaccinated after 3 weekscan be adapted to room conditions. This should be done in a hurry, first remove the shelter for only a few minutes. Then gradually increase the time without film.
The tape pulling the branch should not be touched for six months. After that, the tape is removed, and the grafting spot is lubricated with garden var or a special varnish-balsam.
Hibiscus is a tropical plant, and it is important to create the appropriate conditions. The scattered rays of light, good humidity are prerequisites for the full life of the Chinese rose. She loves acidic soil, and if you break the balance, flowering will disappear, and the plant will become ill.
When humidity is exceeded, the hibiscus rots and molds. The flower is susceptible to attack by pests. But with good care, many troubles can be avoided.
Diseases and Pests
Aphid - a small gluttonous insect capable of eating a whole plant in a very short period. A thorough examination of the flower will help to understand why the leaves turn yellow. Sticky coating indicates the propagation of the pest.
Aphids love young shoots and buds, as they are very soft and secrete juice. When a sticky coating appears, immediately treat the flower with Fitoverm, Biotlin, or tobacco dust.
Spider mite - red spider, it's hard to make out. A leaf covered from the inside with a web is the first sign of the settlement of such a tick. Soap solution, “Akarin” and “Fitoverm” are the main assistants in removing the insect.
Whitefly likes to settle on the underside of a sheet. White, small, flying aphids that leave stickiness. Potash soap, Biotlin and Fitoverm will help to cope with annoying pest very quickly.
Worms - relatives of the scabies - leave a discharge reminiscent of wax. You can say goodbye to them by treating hibiscus with mineral oil.
Flowers usually bloom from mid-summer and last until the end of September. 2-3 months - the optimal flowering period of the Chinese rose.
The reason why hibiscus does not bloom may be an excess of old shoots. They are necessarily removed, since only new branches give good growth.
Soil also needs to be changed: nutrients accelerate the appearance of flowers. Constant good watering and diffused light, heat - the main requirements of hibiscus in this period.
Important! If in the summer the hibiscus was in the open air, and with a cooling it was brought home and put in a sunny place, flowering will continue.
When blooms, flower shape
Hibiscus "wakes up" in late February. It blooms in the summer from mid-June to September. The shape of the flowers is the most diverse. Fully opened buds are cup-shaped, up to 16 centimeters.
There are simple and terry varieties of various colors: peach, pink, bright red, purple. The presented varieties can be seen in the photo.
Plant care after flowering
When the corollas withered and began to dry out, they were removed so that the hibiscus sent forces to grow new buds. Otherwise, the growth will be frail, buds small and weak. Do not be surprised why the plant does not bloom. Home rose actively lives from February to November, and then goes to winter.
Many doubt whether hibiscus can be kept at home when it blooms. It is not specifically necessary to clean the plant for wintering: they simply reduce watering and lower the temperature to 15 ° C.