Solanum (Solanum) belongs to the eponymous Solanum family. The genus is based on one data from 1200 species, according to others - from 1700. Most of them originate from South America.
The genus Nightshade is very diverse. This includes crops such as eggplant, potato tomatoes, as well as plants used in the pharmaceutical industry, such as bittersweet nightshade and black nightshade.
Nightshade is a variety of trees and shrubs, which may have lying, creeping or erect stems and simple or cirrus-dissected leaves. The plant blooms with white, yellow, pink or purple flowers, collected in loose inflorescences in the form of tsimoznye brushes, scutes or panicles. Round or bell-shaped corollas then have 5 to 10 denticles and anther and stamens closed by a cone.
Fruits are nightshade with berries of various colors, most often poisonous.
Types of nightshade
Talking about indoor plants, it makes no sense to describe potatoes or tomatoes. Below are the types used in decorative floriculture.
False-nightshade nightshade - in nature, it is an evergreen bush up to 1.5 m high with slightly wavy lanceolate leaves about 10 cm long, located on short petioles. Small white flowers are either single or collected in a brush. Fruits in red or yellow round berries with a diameter of up to 2 cm. It is widely used in pot culture, grows up to 40-60 cm in room conditions. There are varieties with white, red, orange, almost black berries. There are variegated varieties, varieties with white and red berries on the same bush and dwarfs, barely reaching a height of 30 cm.
Cayenne Solanacea - the plant is very similar to the previous one, only more compact and with berries smaller than that of the false-pepper nightshade. It is characterized by the presence of a light gray edge in young shoots, also has variegated varieties and varieties with different fruit colors.
Nightshade Jasmine - is an evergreen shrub with long climbing shoots up to 2-5 m, with elongated leaves located on the tops. Leaves located in the center and at the base of the bush are most often triple with a large average share. Light blue flowers are collected in apical inflorescences panicles. Fruits in red berries with a diameter of up to one and a half centimeters. It blooms for a very long time - from March to October. In decorative floriculture, varieties with various colors and sizes of flowers, as well as variegated, are distinguished.
Giant Nightshade - evergreen branched shrub plant up to 6 meters high. Spiky and pubescent shoots. Oblong leaves with a length of about 20 cm from the bottom have a white edge. In July August it blooms with lilac-colored flowers collected in a scutellum.
Wendland Nightshade - shrub with curly evergreen shoots 4-6 m long, dissected leaves and bell-shaped purple or lilac flowers with a diameter of about 6 cm. Flowering - in June-August. The berries are red.
Nightshade Curly evergreen herb with curly shoots and purple or blue flowers, which are collected in apical inflorescences.
Nightshade is quite easy to care for and grows from the seeds to the size of an adult plant in a season.
Temperature and lighting
Nightshade does not tolerate heat. In summer, it should fluctuate around 18-20 degrees. The temperature in winter is reduced to 14-16 degrees.
For normal growth, nightshade needs a lot of direct sunlight.
Humidity and watering
Water and spray the plant with soft, warm water. The earthen lump in the pot should not dry out; the nightshade is watered often and plentifully, not forgetting to drain the excess water from the pan. If moisture is not enough, nightshade will drop buds and berries. In winter, with the onset of the rest period, watering is reduced, but the earthen is not allowed to dry out.
Spray a plant daily. Unlike other plants, it requires regular spraying during dormancy.
Fertilizer and fertilizing
Complex fertilizers every 2-3 weeks during the growing season.
Soil and transplant
Solanum needs a neutral or slightly acidic soil, a pot with holes of the usual form and a mandatory drainage layer. Every year at the end of winter, the plant is transplanted into new soil, having previously been pruned heavily.
Flowering and fruiting
It blooms, beginning in late May, with small, up to 1 cm white star-shaped flowers. Decorative berries are nightshade, which are kept on the bush for several months.
Every year before transplanting, nightshade is cut short. As the shoots grow, pinch them to form a compact bush, starting in September.
Reproduction of nightshade
The plant is easily propagated by cuttings and seeds.
Propagation by cuttings
In spring, cuttings of 6-7 cm long are cut and rooted in sand, perlite or peat at a temperature of 24-26 degrees.
In the spring, in March-April, nightshade seeds are sown in a sand-peat mixture, lightly sprinkled with soil and germinated, covered with glass at a temperature of 20-22 degrees in a dark place. After germination, the seedlings are exposed in a bright place and dive when at least 2 leaves appear.
Pests, diseases and possible problems
- Nightshade can be affected by a spider mite, aphids and whiteflies. Treat the plant with an insecticide.
- At temperatures above 21 degrees, fruits, flowers, and leaves may fall.
- With a lack of moisture in the soil, the fruits may wrinkle and the leaves fall.
- Leaves may turn yellow due to overflow or lack of light.
- After successful flowering, the fruits may not start if self-pollination has not occurred. Shake the plant during flowering, or fan the newspaper from time to time.
Yellow circles on the leaves may be a sign of a viral disease. The plant will have to be thrown away, since there is no cure for the virus today.