Oleander (Nerium) is a monotypic genus of flowering plants belonging to the Kutrov family. Oleander Ordinary is the only representative of the genus and originates from dry or semi-dry subtropical zones of the Mediterranean, Morocco and Southern China.
Oleander is quite large, reaching 4 meters of evergreen tree shrub. It has brownish stems branching and covered with tubercles. Narrow leaves are opposite, leathery, long, painted dark green with a light central vein, reach a length of 10-15 cm, a width of 3.
From June to September it blooms with very attractive flowers, collected a few at the top of the shoots. They are very fragrant and have a variety of colors - white, yellow, orange, purple, pink, purple. There are terry and variegated varieties.
When dealing with an oleander, do not forget that the plant is poisonous. During flowering, the plant should not be in the bedroom.
Varieties of oleander
There are many varieties of oleander with different sizes and colors of flowers, terry and simple. The leaves of the plant can be variegated. All oleander flowers are very fragrant.
- "Elegance" - large flowers with the color of all shades of pink and apricot with a fruity aroma.
- "Variegata" - Terry flowers, petals - narrow and elongated.
- Soleil Levant - the flowers are pink, in the middle - yellow.
- "Hardyred" - the variety has small bright red semi-double flowers with a fruity aroma.
- Cardinal - simple flowers of medium size. Coloring - raspberry, burgundy. The aroma is light, fruity.
- "Mont Blanc" - the variety is characterized by abundant flowering and snow-white round flowers.
- "Petite Salmon" - This is a dwarf variety up to 40 cm in size with small peach flowers.
- "Rigoletto" - a variety with pink double flowers and twisted petals.
Despite its incredible beauty and ease of cultivation, the oleander has not become a very popular indoor plant. Probably due to the fact that an adult plant takes up a lot of space and is very poisonous.
Temperature and lighting
Regarding the attitude to light about the oleander we can say: "the more the better." With a lack of light, the plant will not bloom. In winter you need to light up. In summer, the oleander can be taken out to fresh air.
In summer, the plant will feel good at 18-22 degrees, but is able to withstand higher temperatures. In winter, you need a cool content of 8-12 degrees. At higher temperatures, you need to increase air humidity. Temperature minimum - 5 degrees. Put the oleander away from the heating partings - high temperatures in winter, coupled with dry air, are fatal to him.
Humidity and watering
In summer, the soil should always be wet - if necessary, water daily. In winter, watering is reduced, allowing the topsoil to dry slightly (but not dry!). The cooler the winter, the more scarce the watering should be.
At low temperatures and relatively high humidity, oleander can be sprayed occasionally. But if the ambient temperature exceeds 18 degrees, or with a warm winter, you need to moisten the leaves daily.
Fertilizer and fertilizing
From April to September, twice a month with citrus fertilizers. From time to time, the crown is treated with a chelate complex.
Soil and transplant
Oleander needs a weakly acidic, loose and nutritious soil. A ready-made substrate for citrus is suitable. The plant is transplanted every 2-3 years in the spring by transshipment, trying not to destroy the earthen lump. The signal for transplantation can be the roots that appeared from the drainage hole or on the surface of the soil. The pot is needed quite large, with a good layer of drainage.
Flowering and pruning
Typically, oleanders bloom from July to October with very beautiful fragrant flowers.
Oleander needs regular pruning. In this way they form a beautiful crown and stimulate flowering. By cropping, they regulate the height of the plant. And you need to do this regularly. In spring, the plant can not be cut, at this time only pinch young shoots. All pruning is done immediately after flowering - the shoots are cut to half or more. This stimulates flowering, as the flowers of the oleander are formed at the tips of young shoots of the first year.
Lack of flowering may be due to missed autumn pruning. All manipulations with the oleander must be done with rubber gloves.
Propagation by cuttings
Most often, oleander is propagated by apical cuttings in spring or during flowering. They are cut 10-15 cm long, the lower cut is made under the kidney, the flowers and lower leaves are cut along with the petioles and powdered with the activated carbon and heteroauxin. After the cuttings have dried in the fresh air for several hours, they are planted in perlite or sand, watered and put in a bright place with a temperature of 18-20 degrees.
During rooting, the cuttings are regularly sprayed and moderately moistened, as there is a danger of stem decay. You can root the cuttings in water by first placing pieces of charcoal in it. After the cuttings take root, they are planted in small pots with light soil.
A plant grown from cuttings can bloom throughout the year.
Propagation of oleander by seeds presents certain difficulties, since they sprout poorly, and germinate rapidly. In addition, it is not clear how beautiful the flowers will be in a plant grown from the seeds of a varietal oleander.
Immediately after collection, the seeds are soaked in a potassium permanganate solution and sown in a sand-peat mixture under glass. If you're lucky, seedlings will appear in two weeks. When two true leaves appear, peel the seedlings into small pots.
Pests, diseases and possible problems
- Oleander is very susceptible to attack by pests - aphids, scale insects, mealybugs. Treat the plant with an insecticide at the first sign of insects.
- With a lack of light, the plant does not bloom, buds that have already appeared do not open.
- Buds will not open even at low temperature.