Columnea (Columnea) is an epiphytic (growing on trees) or semi-epiphytic (first growing on trees, and then lowering the roots into the ground) shrub of the Gesneria family. The genus has about 75 species and in vivo grows in the tropics between Costa Rica and Ecuador.
Kolumney is an ornamental flowering and ornamental deciduous plant. Its ampelous shoots up to a meter long are covered with small leaves, which can be dense, leathery or soft, pubescent with thin hairs. They are located opposite and have a dark green color, in some species the underside of the leaf plate is slightly reddish.
Large, up to 7 cm long tubular flowers are located directly in the axils of the leaves. In natural species, the color of the flower varies from red salmon to fiery red. In culture, there are many varieties and hybrids with pink, yellow and orange flowers.
Types of Column
- Kolumney Hairy - climbing or climbing epiphytic perennial plant with shoots reaching one meter and shiny leaves. It can bloom all year long with orange flowers.
- Kolumney Skandensa has long flowers with a small limb of red, sometimes yellow.
- Columnia Acute - a plant with pointed leaves. Blossoms in early spring with bright orange flowers, berries are white.
- Kolumney Shideana - a characteristic feature of the species are long leaves and flowers located in a horizontal plane, covered with hairs. Most often, their color is yellow with elongated spots of brick color, but the flowers are also pure yellow.
Kolumney Kruenta - leafy plant with fan-shaped leaves. The underside of the sheet plate is fully or partially painted in maroon.
- Columnus Eritrophaeus - One of the most attractive, abundantly flowering and unpretentious species with large orange flowers.
Temperature and lighting - for a Kolumna it is necessary to choose a bright, but protected from direct rays place. The plant is very thermophilic, during the growing season, the temperature should not be below 20 degrees. In winter, the plant is kept at a temperature of 12-14 degrees. Do not put a pot of plants close to heating appliances. Kolumneya absolutely does not tolerate drafts.
Humidity and watering - in summer and spring the plant is watered often, not allowing the land to be dried in a pot, but moisture stagnation at the roots should not be allowed. Humidity is needed, flowers with smooth leaves are often sprayed, around plants with pubescent leaves moisten the air. Make sure that after spraying the leaves do not fall sunlight.
Please note - you can water and spray the plant only with soft, better filtered water.
Fertilizer and fertilizing - biweekly fertilizers for violets.
Soil and transplant - ready-made soil for violets with the addition of charcoal, vermiculite and sphagnum moss or coconut fiber is suitable for the column. The pot is needed wide and shallow, a layer of drainage is poured from 1/3 to 1/2 the volume of the pot. Young plants are transplanted next spring after rooting, then once every 2-3 years.
Flowering and pruning - if the winter temperature is above 15 degrees, the formation of flower buds will be delayed, they may not even form at all. When the buds reach a size of 5 mm, the column is transferred to a room with a temperature of at least 18 degrees and they believe that its dormant period has ended - they begin to water and feed liberally.
After flowering, the plant must be cut in half.
When transplanting adult plants, the columna can be propagated by dividing the bush, simply by planting the dividers in different pots and shortly pruning the shoots.
Cuttings of the flower propagated in April, they are planted directly in small pots in a sand-peat mixture of several pieces and covered with a film. At a soil temperature of 20-24 degrees, the plant takes root in 2-3 weeks, then the film can be removed.
Pests, diseases and possible problems
Kolumneya reacts very badly to any deviation from the above conditions of detention, she is greatly harmed:
- dry air
- hard water;
- low temperature;
She can dump leaves and buds. But this does not mean that the plant needs to be thrown away. Cut the bare shoots and create suitable conditions for the column - and the plant will come to life.